History of the 1st millennium
Mesopotamian history in the first millennium BC is characterized by the continuity of imperial domination. The first half of the millennium is dominated by the Neo-Assyrian Empire with its immense boundaries extending far beyond any previous power had achieved. The latter half of the millennium witnesses the quick rise and fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar and then the conquest from the East by the Persians under Cyrus the Great and their rule. Finally, Mesopotamian history falls under the hegemony of Hellenism with the conquest of Alexander the Great in 330 BC. At this point the history of Mesopotamia ceases to belong to its autochthonous population. However, the events in the first millennium bring about developments in warfare, religion, and politics that continue to be felt today.