Verbal Morphology

Verbal Suffixes

Finite verbs in Elamite are marked according to person and number. There is one conjugation class (called Conjugation I) for all verbs, which is generally agreed upon as indicating an active preterite or perfect. A paradigm table with the verb stem hutta "to do" will illustrate:

Conjugation I

Singular Plural
1st hutta-h hutta-hu
2nd hutta-t hutta-ht
3rd hutta-sz hutta-hsz

(Cf. Stolper pg. 65 and Reiner pg. 76).

In addition, participial forms derived from finite verb stems were used for the present/future and passives. There were two classes. Active participles were marked with the suffix -k (Conjugation II) and passives with -n (Conjugation III). These participles follow nominal declension. The following paradigm tables illustrate with the verb stems hutta- "to do", katu- "??", and szinni- "??":

Conjugation II

Class
locutive (1st sg./pl.) szinni-k < *szinni-k-k
allocutive (2nd sg./pl.) katu-k-t
delocutive (3rd sg. anim.) huttak-r
(3rd pl. anim.) hutta-k-p
(3rd inan.) hutta-k-Ø

Conjugation III

Class
locutive (1st sg./pl.) hutta-n-k
allocutive (2nd sg./pl.) hutta-n-t
delocutive (3rd sg. anim.) hutta-n-r
(3rd pl. anim.) hutta-n-p
(3rd inan.) hutta-n-Ø

The Imperative

In Middle Elamite the imperative is simply the second person of Conjugation I. Thus kullak.u.me hap.t(i) "hear my prayer". In Achaemenid Elamite the third person is used, e.g. kullak.u.me hap.sz.

Negative imperatives and prohibatives are formed from Conjugation III participles preceded by the particle anu/ani. E.g. Achaemenid Elamite hupe anu hutta.n.t(i) 'Do not do that' and anu u ir turna.n.p(i) 'lest they know me'. See Stolper pg. 68 for further information.

verbal_morphology.txt · Last modified: 2010/04/18 04:12 (external edit)
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